Category archives for Volumes

Neuroprotection with Glycine-2-Methylproline-Glutamate (G-2MePE) after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in adult rats

Neuroprotection of G-2MePG

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Background and Purpose: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, due to reduced supply of oxygen to brain, is a major cause of death and disability. There is no exclusive treatment available so far. Glycine-2-Methylproline-Glutamate (G-2MePE, NNZ 2566), an analogue of Glycine-Proline-Glutamate reduces neuronal injury after focal ischemia in adult rats. The current study investigated into the neuroprotective effects of G-2MePE after global hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in adult rats.Methods: Adult male rats received a single sub cutaneous injection of G-2MePE (1.2mg/kg) 3h post hypoxic-ischemic brain injury or the same volume of normal saline. Brains were extracted 5 days after the treatment. Tissue damage in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum was assessed. Neuronal survival, glial reactions, caspase-3 activity and TNF-α cytokine activity were also assessed.Results: The treatment with G-2MePE was associated with a significant reduction of tissue damage, improvement in neuronal survival, reduction in reactive microglia, TNF-α positive cells and caspase-3 positive cells in hippocampus and cortex but an elevation of astrocytosis.Conclusions: Neuroprotection with G-2MePE after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in adult rats is associated with reduced neuronal necrosis, apoptosis, modulated inflammatory responses and augmented astrocytosis.

Chemokine receptor-like 2 is involved in ischemic brain injury

CCRL2 is involved in ischemic brain injury

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We examined the role of CCRL2 in ischemic brain injury using both in vitro and in vivo mouse stroke models. The expression of CCRL2 was enhanced at both the RNA and protein levels in cultured brain slices under ischemic conditions. Ischemia-induced cell death was reduced in brain slices derived from CCRL2 knockout (KO) mice in comparison with those from wild type (WT) mice. The infarct volume was smaller and neurological deficits were attenuated in CCRL2 KO mice when compared to WT mice subjected to a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Our data suggest that CCRL2 is involved in ischemia-induced brain injury in mice.

Acute bioenergetic intervention or pharmacological preconditioning protects neuron against ischemic injury

Acute bioenergetic intervention or pharmacological preconditioning

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Although acute ischemic stroke has high mortality and morbidity rate but yet still has very limited treatment. In this study we have tested the concept of neuron protection by acute bioenergetic intervention or by pharmacological preconditioning with natural antioxidants. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), pentobarbital, and suramin were encapsulated in pH-sensitive liposomes and used as bioenergy stabilizer. We induced ATP depletion model by incubating cells with media added with ATP-depleting agents for 2 hours. Treatment with bioenergy stabilizer started 10-min post inducing of ATP-depletion. The acute treatment with bioenergy stabilizer significantly increased cell viability in neuro-2a cells. In searching for a pharmacological preconditioning candidate for reducing ischemic injury, we tested cocoa-derived flavanols using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). We pretreated mice with cocoa-derived flavanols (75 mg/kg) or water orally for 7 days and subjected mice for 12 minutes BCCAO. At 7 days post-ischemia, the number of surviving hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly higher in the treated mice than in the water-treated controls. The protection from cocoa-derived flavanols was found associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in the brain. Our results indicate that for reducing acute ischemic injury bioenergetic intervention using advanced drug delivery tools is conceptually feasible, and for reducing reperfusion related secondary injury pharmacological preconditioning may provide significant protection.

The role of NADPH oxidase in brain ischemia: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation: Hai Chen (2009) The role of NADPH oxidase in brain ischemia. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2009, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 41-45. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-2.1.41 The role of NADPH oxidase in brain ischemia Hai Chen , MD, PhD1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, […]

A new journal to address an old problem: experimental stroke, lack of neuroprotective agents and translational medicine: Abstract

Full-text  PDF Article Citation: Bruno P. Meloni, Kym Campbell, and Neville W. Knuckey (2009) A new journal to address an old problem: experimental stroke, lack of neuroprotective agents and translational medicine. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2009, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-2. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-2.1.1 A new journal to address an old […]

Strategies for therapeutic hypometabothermia: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Shimin Liu and Jiang-Fan Chen (2012) Strategies for therapeutic hypometabothermia. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2012, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 31-42. Strategies for therapeutic hypometabothermia Shimin Liu, M.D., Ph.D*; Jiang-Fan Chen, M.D, Ph.D* Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA Abstract Although therapeutic hypothermia and […]

Peptides targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (JNK/Jun) fail to reduce infarct volume after permanent MCAO in Sprague Dawley rats: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Cindy Si, Kym Campbell, Jane L. Cross, Paul M. Watt, Nadia Milech, Neville W. Knuckey, and Bruno P. Meloni (2012) Peptides targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (JNK/Jun) fail to reduce infarct volume after permanent MCAO in Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2012, Vol. 5, No. […]

Possible factors influencing postoperative temporary neurologic deterioration following standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery: diameter of STA and MCA (M4): Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Jie Bai, Yuan-Li Zhao, Ji-Zong Zhao, Rong Wang, Dong Zhang, Song Lin, and Chang-Wu Dou (2012) Possible factors influencing postoperative temporary neurologic deterioration following standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery: diameter of STA and MCA (M4). Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2012, Vol. 5, No. 1, […]

Novel experimental model for repeated forebrain ischemia-reperfusion: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Lei Chen, Yu Shang, Eszter Sipos, Kathryn E. Saatman, Guoqiang Yu, and Michal Toborek (2012) Novel experimental model for repeated forebrain ischemia-reperfusion. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2012, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-10. Novel experimental model for repeated forebrain ischemia-reperfusion Lei Chen MD, PhD1,4; Yu Shang PhD2; Eszter […]

Isoflurane anesthesia alters the brains electroencephalograhical response to ischemia: EEG parameters associated with high-grade CA1 neuronal injury following global cerebral ischemia in the rat: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Li-Xian Li, Kym Campbell, Shiguang Zhao, Neville W. Knuckey, and Bruno P. Meloni (2011) Isoflurane anesthesia alters the brains electroencephalograhical response to ischemia: EEG parameters associated with high-grade CA1 neuronal injury following global cerebral ischemia in the rat.. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2011, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. […]

Targeting ischemic penumbra Part II: selective drug delivery using liposome technologies: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Shimin Liu, Steven R. Levine, and H. Richard Winn (2011) Targeting ischemic penumbra Part II: selective drug delivery using liposome technologies. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2011, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 16-23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-4.1.16 Targeting ischemic penumbra Part II: selective drug delivery using liposome technologies Shimin Liu, M.D., […]

Impact of various extents of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by the endovascular filament model on mortality and changes of cerebral blood flow: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Thomas Westermaier, Alina Jauss, Giles H. Vince, Furat Raslan, Joerg Eriskat, and Klaus Roosen (2011) Impact of various extents of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by the endovascular filament model on mortality and changes of cerebral blood flow. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2011, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 8-15. […]

Transcutaneous Therapeutic Ultrasound Reduces Infarct Size in a Rabbit Model of Acute Insoluble Ischemic Stroke: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Rene Flores, John D. Lowery, Robert D. Skinner, Paula K. Roberson, Sean D. Woods, and William C. Culp (2011) Transcutaneous Therapeutic Ultrasound Reduces Infarct Size in a Rabbit Model of Acute Insoluble Ischemic Stroke. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2011, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-4.1.1 Transcutaneous […]

INFECTION – AN AMENDMENT TO THE STROKE MODEL GUIDELINES: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Odilo Engel, Ulrich Dirnagl, and Andreas Meisel (2010) INFECTION – AN AMENDMENT TO THE STROKE MODEL GUIDELINES. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: July 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 29-32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.2.29 INFECTION – AN AMENDMENT TO THE STROKE MODEL GUIDELINES Odilo Engel*, Ulrich Dirnagl, Andreas Meisel Department for Experimental […]

Complex models for the complexity of cerebral ischemia: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:David S. Liebeskind (2010) Complex models for the complexity of cerebral ischemia. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: July 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 27-28. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.2.27 Complex models for the complexity of cerebral ischemia David S. Liebeskind, M.D. Stroke Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA […]

Oceans of the brain: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Robert Goldfarb and Russ E. Davis, (2010) Oceans of the brain. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: July 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 22-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.2.22 Oceans of the brain Robert Goldfarb, Ph.D1*; Russ E. Davis, , Ph.D.2 1 Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY […]

Subarachnoid pharmacotherapy for maximizing recovery after cortical ischemic stroke: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Nandor Ludvig (2010) Subarachnoid pharmacotherapy for maximizing recovery after cortical ischemic stroke. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: July 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 13-21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.2.13 Subarachnoid pharmacotherapy for maximizing recovery after cortical ischemic stroke Nandor Ludvig, M.D., Ph.D. NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, NYU, School of Medicine/Langone Medical Center, […]

Enhanced angiogenesis and reduced infarct size by vascular endothelial growth factor D is not translated to behavioral outcome in a rat model of ischemic stroke: Abstract

Full-text   PDF Article Citation:Pavel Yanev, Jukka Jolkkonen, Kari J. Airenne, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, and Thomas Wirth (2010) Enhanced angiogenesis and reduced infarct size by vascular endothelial growth factor D is not translated to behavioral outcome in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: July 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, […]

Additional comments on the bistable network model of brain ischemia

PDF Article Citation:Donald J. DeGracia (2010) Additional comments on the bistable network model of brain ischemia. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2010, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 115-115. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.1.115 Additional comments on the bistable network model of brain ischemia Donald J. DeGracia, Ph.D.* Department of Physiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI […]

Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part IV: additional considerations: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Donald J. DeGracia (2010) Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part IV: additional considerations. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2010, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 104-114. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.1.104 Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part IV: additional considerations Donald J. DeGracia, […]

Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part III: therapeutic implications: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Donald J. DeGracia (2010) Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part III: therapeutic implications. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2010, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 90-103. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.1.90 Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part III: therapeutic implications Donald J. DeGracia, […]

Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part II: a post-ischemic neuronal state space: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Donald J. DeGracia (2010) Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part II: a post-ischemic neuronal state space. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2010, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 72-89. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.1.72 Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part II: a post-ischemic […]

Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part I: background and preliminaries: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Donald J. DeGracia (2010) Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part I: background and preliminaries. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2010, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 59-71. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.1.59 Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part I: background and preliminaries Donald […]

The bistable network model of brain ischemia: Abstract

Full-text PDF Article Citation:Konstantin-A. Hossmann (2010) The bistable network model of brain ischemia. Journal of Experimental Stroke and Translational Medicine: January 2010, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 56-58. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6030/1939-067X-3.1.56 The bistable network model of brain ischemia Konstantin-A. Hossmann, M.D., Ph.D.* Director emeritus of Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Gleueler Strasse 50, D-50931 Köln, […]